Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton “architect”, from ἀρχι- “chief” and τέκτων “builder”) is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Architects tend to focus on particular project-types or specialise in fields requiring specific expertise and academic training. A few of these are described below:
Residential architecture is a discipline within the architecture field which focuses on the design of residences, ranging from single family homes to apartment complexes. There are a number of concerns which are unique to residential architecture, and skilled residential architects can be in high demand. Some of the most famous architects in the world are noted for their work on residences, including Frank Lloyd Wright, an architect noted for his innovative, distinctive, and totally unique home designs, many of which continue to be highly treasured decades after their construction.
Fundamentally, residential architecture is about designing and building homes which are functional and safe. Residential architects must think about prevailing building codes, safety issues, and functionality matters such as floor plans, placement of outlets, and other issues. They must also be able to work with their clients to develop homes which meet needs and expectations, and each client usually has a slightly different list of needs and requirements for a home.
A well-designed building is aesthetically pleasing as well as functional, and the functionality varies according to the type of space that is being designed. A successful design of a commercial or public building is highly dependent on a flowing and self-guiding circulation that optimise the experience for the building users. For example, a well-designed shopping mall lets the buyers find their way and get what they need easily, without getting lost or walking more than they should. They specialize in non-residential buildings, and this specialization requires engineering, construction, and artistic skills. It also requires full awareness of building codes, safety regulations, and construction costs.
Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of mankind’s built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. Architectural conservation deals with issues of prolonging the life and integrity of architectural character and integrity, such as form and style, and/or its constituent materials, such as stone, brick, glass, metal, and wood.
Sustainable Design Architect
With the recent changes in climate and the remarkable decline in non-renewable energy resources, the role of Sustainable Design Architects has become essential.
Sustainable Design Architects are responsible for making eco-friendly and energy efficient architectural designs. They continuously work on innovating effective green design methods that leave a minimal impact on the environment. These architects should be knowledgeable in fields like aerodynamics, sun and shading, as well as properties of materials.
Urban Design is a broad subject that employs other specializations like building architecture, landscape design, and green design. It deals with the scales of neighbourhoods, districts, and cities. Urban designers are in charge of grouping buildings, designing nodes, paths, and street networks. They give a city its shape and sense of order. They can design cities from scratch or develop existing ones. They face a wider range of issues that have to do with the economy, politics, and culture. They, also, have to be in touch with the communities they serve who are their actual clients.
Landscape architecture is concerned with the outdoor spaces like parks, gardens, neighbourhoods, campuses, and public spaces. Landscape architects design these spaces to be efficient, engaging, and harmonious with the environment. They decide the locations for buildings, walkways, greenery, and other hardscape elements. They also choose the materials for the walkways and the types of trees and shrubs for the green areas, and so they need to have a background in the science of urban horticulture. They should be aware of the suitable materials and plants for different climates and uses.
Designing and styling the interior of an apartment, an office, or a restaurant requires artistic sense and technical knowledge. Interior Designers have deep knowledge of materials, fabrics, colors, and basics of furniture design. Some architects prefer to work on the large scale and not to get involved with such details, while others, like the pioneer Frank Lloyd Wright, prefer to do the interior design for their own projects.